Materials used in the manufacture of Katanas Katana Sword

The katana is as much a work of art as it is a weapon. Its manufacture requires great skill and meticulous attention to detail. A crucial aspect of this craft is the choice of materials. In this article, we explore in detail the materials used in katana manufacture.

Steel: the heart of the katana

The most important element in the manufacture of a katana is steel. But not just any steel. Katana smiths use a type of steel called tamahagane. Tamahagane is a high-carbon steel made from iron sand in a tatara furnace.

The tamahagane manufacturing process is complex and requires considerable expertise. The iron sand is heated in the tatara furnace for several days, allowing the iron to separate from the other elements and combine with the carbon to form the steel. The result is a raw steel block containing pieces of steel of different qualities.

Choice of steel

Once the raw steel block is ready, the blacksmith must select the pieces of steel he will use to make the katana. This selection is crucial, as it determines the characteristics of the blade.

In general, the blacksmith uses a mixture of high- and low-carbon steel. High-carbon steel is hard and sharp, but also more brittle. Low-carbon steel, on the other hand, is softer and stronger, but not as sharp. By combining these two types of steel, the blacksmith can create a blade that is both sharp and strong.

Forging the blade

Once the blacksmith has chosen his steel, he begins forging the blade. This stage involves heating the steel in a forge, then hammering it into shape. The blacksmith must also bend and fold the steel several times, which strengthens the blade and creates the distinctive tempering pattern known as hamon.

Tempering the blade

After forging the blade, the blacksmith proceeds to tempering. This stage is crucial in giving the katana its unique characteristics. The blacksmith covers the blade with a layer of clay, leaving a thin line along the edge of the exposed blade. The blade is then heated and rapidly cooled. This differential tempering creates a blade with a hard edge and a softer spine, enabling the katana to be both sharp and resilient.

Polishing the blade

Once the blade has been forged and tempered, it needs to be polished. This step is essential to reveal the beauty of the blade and to refine the cutting edge. Polishing a katana is an art in itself, and requires great skill. The polisher uses a series of progressively finer stones to refine the blade, a process that can take several weeks.

Handle and guard

The hilt and guard of a katana are equally important, and require specific materials. The hilt is generally made of wood, covered with stingray skin, then wrapped in silk. The rayskin gives the handle a rough texture that helps prevent slipping, while the silk provides a comfortable grip.

The guard, or tsuba, is usually made of iron or bronze. It is often decorated with intricate designs, which may include nature scenes, mythological figures or geometric patterns.

The saya: the katana scabbard

The scabbard, or saya, is generally made of light wood and lacquered for protection. The saya plays a crucial role in protecting the blade and is often elegantly decorated.


Making a katana is a complex process requiring great expertise and careful selection of materials. From tamahagane steel to stingray skin, each material plays a crucial role in the creation of a katana. By understanding these materials and the manufacturing process, we can better appreciate the beauty and artistry of the katana.

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